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Abacus education on Japan
Time: 2015-12-7 10:09:36 Access: 2768

History 1. abacus Education

Changes (1) 1945 (World War II) previously abacus Education

Abacus about 500 years ago by China Japan came into the 17 century, from warrior to civilian education in the rapidly growing popularity. Thereafter school education, to the 19th century and is known as the "Terakoya" surge, "Reading, writing and arithmetic (abacus)" as the origin of Japanese education is fixed down.

In 1873, primary school arithmetic established Western Division introduced the written calculation. However, due to the general community in real life abacus necessary requirements, in fact, written calculation using the abacus and parallel teaching.

On the other hand, since the practice is essential abacus society, practitioners increase the skill requirements of Abacus personnel. In order to comply with this requirement, professional conduct abacus guidance Days protracted Sook (after rounding up schools altogether) in Yokkaichi, Mie Prefecture, was born at the same time. In one day 16 hours day and night of continuous practice, continuous exercise 100 days a manner completely workout speed calculation ability, training Abacus talent. This is called "Ise hundred days count", he graduated from this school of talent as the revitalization of Abacus instructors are active in various parts of Japan. Abacus from the beginning about 100 years ago on the popularity of private school as a center.

In terms of business education by 1883 Yokohama business school began, all regions have set up business schools, abacus and bookkeeping are the main subject.

Public education and primary education (primary school), and the original is written calculation for the mainstream. After the abacus valued and despised era, in 1926 was higher primary school (now junior) used, thereby clearly established its position as a positive course, and in 1935 became a required course for ordinary primary schools.

With the expansion of the scope of teacher licensing system, verification by the Ministry of Education, in 1931 started the abacus class teacher's license system.

In 1927, Abacus proof test for Tokyo City Industrial school students implemented in 1931 were handed over to the Tokyo Chamber of Commerce and Industry, and renamed "Abacus Proficiency Test", Tokyo verification test on track. As proof that the test can be effectively used for teaching and learning abacus and proved learner skills, Commerce and Industry conferences around the reach of Abacus Group educators are beginning to conduct verification tests. Since the purpose of the test system, the test around the test were not desirable, therefore, in 1944, in order to unify the order of Commerce and Industry as the center established a national economy will Abacus Alliance of Commerce and Industry, began a national scale Abacus test.

Further, as the Abacus business school and its regional revitalization policy, began to convene abacus contest. To the 1910s, with the increase in private school abacus, abacus contest also flourish. In 1936 for the first time it held a national contest abacus, abacus teachers get around the exchange. However, the abacus national organization in order to perform verification test only national economy will Abacus Alliance of Commerce and Industry.

Abacus Educational Change (2) 1945 (World War II) after

After the war, with the economic recovery, the economic sector preference qualified professionals to obtain advanced abacus trend more obvious, so the region have opened abacus private school. Even say that this trend makes abacus support from the Japanese high-growth part of the sky too.

In this situation, in 1953, we set up a joint abacus teacher Abacus National Education Alliance (three years after the approval of the Ministry of Education as a judicial person referred to as "full Zhulian"). At the same period, it has also set up a coordination group of Commerce and Industry of Japan Abacus Alliance, led the subsequent Japanese Abacus bounds. In addition, the establishment of the National Business School Heads Association (high school after the National Employment Association).

These groups set up Abacus, Abacus promotes verification tests, the national competition, as well as a variety of a personality test, the contest was held, children, students and adults in general have a goal of learning. Especially since the era before the arrival of IC, test as a condition of eligibility indispensable inauguration, so come out on top in the rankings specialty interest groups.

However, after the era of IC 1975, Abacus has substantive requirements color fading. It created a demand culture arithmetic abacus and mental arithmetic mathematical foundations of society. Full Zhulian also turn to education in order to practice Abacus Abacus, in 2000 after a significant adjustment verification test content, until today. Grade Learning abacus age also changed from 1975 to primary school before high school to high school after primary school based in (around 10 years), until the 7-8 year-old children in primary grades today. As the origin of education, "read, write, count (abacus)," but also because in recent years to be recognized again and resurrected in recent years, reducing the number of children in an environment still shows rising test turned up phenomenon.

(3) as the abacus Education Public Education Changes

Before World War II as a public education compulsory course of abacus to continue to decline after the war. In high school, there was a time into the vocational school classroom, but then completely disappeared. On the other hand, primary schools by 10-year cycle of the revised study guide essentials of abacus teaching repeated a further retreat of the situation. Last year, the essentials of the revised guidance, primary school 3, Grade 4 have courses abacus addition and subtraction. However, the transition from positioning abacus calculation tool to help understand the various units and decimal educational tool, teaching time each school year, only 2-4 hours.

In high school business department, as the practice of abacus calculation from the beginning 10 years ago, gradually to disappear, now only electives.

However, the abacus is not only to foster number sense, but also help develop concentration, endurance, enthusiasm, it is the brain's development have an indispensable role. I want to tell you that, from a public school education in classroom teaching to social education as the abacus, abacus education is alive today. It faithfully reflected from the earlier mentioned increase verification tests turned up phenomena.

2. The present situation

Full beads together in order abacus and mental arithmetic test test test mainly be quick calculation verification and count abacus mental arithmetic test. Also, in the "Abacus Day" every year on August 8 will be held throughout Japan Abacus Contest players right across the country there are more than 500 children from 8 years old to have reached his sixtieth year of abacus Dan master competition. Athletics consolidated (Abacus project multiplying, except calculation, addition and subtraction and mental arithmetic total of six projects) project categories, there are quick calculation mental arithmetic, reading mental arithmetic, reading count, all events have to take in order to fight the war in the air in Japan. This year is the international meeting place in the city of Kyoto National convened. In addition, various competitions will be held in each prefecture as a unit, as well as other areas.

In addition, in order to train teachers teaching ability abacus, we will convene a national assembly and regional research various training seminars, and teaching in primary schools in order to allow Abacus can proceed smoothly, sending volunteer instructor, also being broadcast all over the country to promote its Abacus utility TV, radio and advertising.

Now, Japan's national team has the National Abacus Education Alliance, a collaboration of Commerce and Industry of Japan Abacus Alliance group, and the National Union School Abacus these three groups, these three groups formed by the National Federation of Abacus education groups, proposed "enhanced school abacus education" slogan activities, strongly urged countries to improve the situation abacus education and so on. Here special mention that the federation in the selection of the players also participate in this World abacus contest.

3. Future Challenges

There is no better than the culture of the abacus mental arithmetic with. At this point, the abacus educators agree, will it put educational goals for all recognized. Of course, society's expectations are very high.

But we also have an obligation to have abacus as an educational tool by the advantages of schooling spread to future generations. We came to Japan from China, through improved abacus forever as a cultural retention, continuous efforts every day.

The future will be together with people around the world, using the "abacus" This tool development abacus, mental arithmetic education.

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