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Discussion on Several Problems of
Time: 2017-9-19 13:53:01 Access: 2011

At present, Zhu Xin arithmetic more and more deeply rooted in the heart, there is a very hot scene, what is the reason? First,  the Chinese abacus was included in the human intangible cultural  heritage, inspired the abscissa community, the education sector  patriotic, love the national culture of enthusiasm. Second,  the abacus of the reform and innovation, gave birth to the pearl heart  count of the magical function, in the majority of abacus, beads mental  arithmetic workers unremitting efforts, and gradually make the minds of  the heart into the hearts of people, a household name. Third,  after a long period of universal experimental research, with the  gradual deepening of education and teaching and research, with a strong  theoretical support. Fourth,  the gradual maturity of the market economy, school training  institutions have mushroomed, forming a broad space for development. Five  is to meet the needs of public employment, innovation, to meet a large  number of college graduates the opportunity to innovation and  entrepreneurship, improve and improve the teacher structure, improve the  level of teachers. In short, this is a "natural place and a" comprehensive embodiment, to meet the unprecedented development results. It is true that there are a number of issues that are worth exploring in the development process.

First, beads mental arithmetic should not be combined with mathematics.

      
Some people think that beads should be self-contained, become an independent discipline. Therefore, the beads mental arithmetic method is endless. Such  as; full five plus, broken five times, the emergence of "complement  law", 1 +4, dial into 1, plus 4, the next bead is not enough to add 4,  want to "4 of the number of 6", down 6, -4, dial into 5, minus 4, the lower beads is not enough to reduce 4, want to "4 of the number of 6", up 6, get 1. There  are "make up the law", 1 +4, dial into the 1, plus 4, the next bead is  not enough, want to "4 to make up a few 1", dial into 5, dial 1, 5; 5-4,  Minus 4, the lower beads is not enough to reduce 4, like "4 to make up a few 1", dial into 1, dial 5, get 1. Such  as "carry plus, abdication minus time, with the difference method",  such as 5 +9, dial into 5, plus 9, full ten, like "9 difference 4", dial  into 4, dial 5 Before  the bit into 1, get 14; 14-9, dial into 14, minus 9, the number of  seats is not enough to reduce the difference of 9,9 4, 10 to 1, a bit  into the 5, dial the difference 4, 5.  Also use the "lift method", 5 +9, dial into the 5, plus 9 full ten,  with the "law", that is, 9 into 1, 14; 14-9, dial into 14, minus 9 Not  enough to reduce 9, with the "drop law", ten to 1, a bit down 9 (or 9)  .In training, the "strongest brain" as the standard, blind pursuit of  speed, the pursuit of difficulty, and some even The devil training, in order to compete in the competition,  ignoring the beginning of the heart of mind thinking the development  of children's intellectual potential. Over time, an increase of the  pressure of teachers, lost most of the students learn the heart of the  interest and confidence.

       
Here  is a fresh example tells us, such as Cixi City, Zhejiang Province, from  the training of child prodigy to open the example of the era of wisdom,  in the nineties, Cixi City set off a wave of training prodigy, but soon  to make the mind mental arithmetic gradually shrinking ,  They learned a heavy lesson, after the city government issued a  document "to revive the cause of the mind to create a pearl mental  arithmetic characteristics of cultural and educational quality," from  the target requirements, strengthen management, take a series of  initiatives to ensure the development of Pratt & Whitney teaching From  kindergarten to primary school to be fully carried out by teachers,  students and parents of the general welcome and support. Some  people think that the teaching of mental arithmetic must be combined  with the mathematics teaching, we should pay attention to the process of  learning, the mental arithmetic algorithm to properly communicate with  the mathematical calculation method, so that the two organically  together. In order  to make the minds of mind thinking embarked on a virtuous circle of  development path, and always maintain vitality, never lost. To allow school teachers and students to recognize the parents, so that students feel useful and useful.

       
As mentioned above, "full five plus, broken five minus", on the clearing algorithm. 1  +4, dial into the 1, plus 4, the beads are not enough to add how to do?  Please be on the beads to help, first increase 5, more than 1, dial 1,  get 5. In short, that is, "plus 4, the beads are not enough to add, the next 5 to 1". Another  example, "5-4", dial into 5, minus 4, under the beads is not enough to  reduce, first by 5, dial to 5, more by 1, dial into 1. In short, that is, "minus 4, the lower beads is not enough to reduce the 1 to 5". This fully embodies the arithmetic algorithm, learning mathematics useful. In the "carry plus, abdication minus", you can use "Minato ten law, broken ten law" principle of teaching. Such  as 2 +9, dial into 2, plus 9, want to "9 and 1 make up 10, dial 1, to  ten into 1. In short, plus 9 when 10, you can dial 1 into 1.5 +9,  as long as the instructions on how to dial 1 (that is, dial into 4 to  5) can. Another example is 11-9, dial into 11, minus 9, bit is not  enough to subtract 10 from 9 is equal to 1, Into  the 1, get 2. In short, by 9:00, you can go from 10 to reduce, plus in a  bit (that is, "10 to 1, a bit plus 1, can also be said to" back 1 Plus  9 of the number of 1). Encounter 14-9, as long as the instructions on  how to add 1 (dial 5, dial 4) can. This teaching not only speak of the  arithmetic, but also in the algorithm and Mathematics with communication and contact.In short, the  calculation of mental arithmetic can not be too far away from the math,  beads mental arithmetic into the primary school mathematics classroom is  guaranteed.

       
In  the teaching of the centroid calculus, it is necessary to clarify the  basic law of "which is the number of the number to multiply and multiply  the end of the result", whether from the high or the low The same calculation rule. Beer  mind arithmetic teaching and mathematics teaching are used in the  "business division", as long as the teaching of the mind to calculate  the arithmetic and calculation of the sum of the calculation, it is  natural to achieve the purpose of mutual communication. In short, the combination of mind and mathematics and mathematics,  mutual exchange and mutual benefit, favorable mental arithmetic and  healthy development.

Second, beads mental arithmetic should not be divided into age?

       
From  the survey found that some training institutions on the brain mental  arithmetic regardless of age, regardless of age, all from scratch, from a  single double digits three digits, etc., in the same class, there  are a variety of different Age students learn the same content. The  result is very serious polarization, primary school students learn  faster than children, learn well, so that children lost confidence. They  are engaged in the heart of the game is also a bit by bit, the author  saw that in the double-digit increase and decrease mental arithmetic,  there are actually third grade students, how can these students with  kindergarten children the same type of game? Most  people think that different age groups to use different teaching  content and different teaching models, to take a different teaching  methods, if the same class in different age groups of students, you can  use a double teaching approach. In  the implementation of the game should pay attention to the age of the  division, and now divided into several cases of age: preschool group  and primary school A group, B group; preschool A group, preschool  group B (corresponding to children classes and large classes) (Group  A, B, C, D, E, F) (corresponding to the middle school, middle class,  primary school, primary school, primary school, primary school, Grade, second grade, third grade and fourth grade and above). Most  people think that the age group is divided into five groups: middle  school, middle class, elementary school low section, middle section and  high section, age is relatively close, relatively reasonable and fair,  if divided into the most, may cause all aspects of work passive Or complicated.

Third, the beads mind arithmetic addition and subtraction Do not have a different digital addition and subtraction?

      
At  present, the market has a variety of versions of the heart of mental  arithmetic materials, practice books, as well as mental arithmetic and  listening to mental arithmetic software, many of a model in the end, is  straight plus straight down one digit addition and subtraction  double digit plus Minus  the three-digit addition and subtraction four-digit addition and  subtraction, and so the order of the preparation of the preparation,  multiplication and division is also a two-bit X a three X a four X a   two a three a four a three two four two and so on so arranged. This arrangement is more rigid, is not conducive to cultivating  the flexibility of students thinking and the diversity of forms of  calculation.

      
Experienced,  the study of the people that the mind mental arithmetic or training, to  follow the spiral rise and twists and turns forward the principle, can  not be mechanized. The  straight plus straight cut into the various links, highlighting five,  breaking five, carry, abdicate the focus and difficulty, in a single,  double-digit addition and subtraction after a double-digit addition and  subtraction, After the arrangement of two or three digits of the addition and subtraction, and so on. At  the same time, we should pay attention to the training with Lian,  because even plus the addition and subtraction hybrid calculation is  more difficult to choose a larger number, is conducive to the expansion  of the calculation. Can not blindly in the end of the same number of addition and subtraction, to prevent the negative potential of the phenomenon. In  the same way, there must be two X-bit, but also to arrange an X two; to  have three two, but also to arrange two X three, and pay attention to  the middle of the multiplier 0, or the end There is a multiplication of 0, which is conducive to the flexibility of training thinking and the diversity of methods. In addition to mental arithmetic to consider the first enough or not  enough to remove the situation, as well as between the middle of the  business and 0 0, etc., to overcome the randomness, pay attention to  regularity, improve the degree of rapid preparation.

Four, beads mental arithmetic increase and decrease the number of training in the number of small and no different difficulty?

      
Some  people think that the more the number of training, the greater the  difficulty, 3 pen more than 2 hard, 5 pen than 3 hard, 10 pen more  difficult than 5 pen, even more than 20 pen more difficult. Rough look seems to be justified, in fact, some people think that the number of pen has nothing to do with the difficulty. Such as: 13 +57-42 +68-76 5 double-digit, in the mental arithmetic, the students always keep the mind is a disc. The first disc is 70 (13 + 57), the second disc is 28 (70-42), the third disc is 96 (28 + 68), the fourth disc is 20 (96-76) The When  there is a disc after the disc, the previous disc will immediately  disappear, that is, mental arithmetic process is always the minds of  students in two numbers plus or minus, even if there are more cases, are  the same model. Outside pedestrians, it seems that the more pen, feel more surprised ah.

Five, listening to mental arithmetic, is not the number of reading the faster the greater the difficulty?

      
Some  listen to mental arithmetic on the video that read the speed, from 2  seconds, 1 second, 0.5 seconds, such as read the speed of the standard,  pen and pen between the read the number of time is difficult to explain  the difficulty. In  fact, the speed is slow, but the mental arithmetic is difficult to  increase, because the minds of beads as the impression of slow and  fuzzy, read the number of speed faster appropriate, but the mind is  clear, so that the operation is correct and rapid. Therefore, read the number to maintain a certain speed to gradually accelerate, is conducive to improving mental arithmetic.

     
In  general, in the teaching of mental arithmetic, how to combine with the  mathematics teaching? How to rationally and effectively divide the age?  How to strengthen the operation of different figures? How to treat the  number of mental arithmetic count? How to properly have a certain number  of speed? Of the problem, are worth further exploration and research.


Author: Zhejiang Pearl Mental Education Education Guidance Center

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